More questions are now being asked into what predisposes athletes to injury. With research increasing, more factors are arising along with increased interventions for athlete and support staff alike. Psychosocial factors are becoming an increasingly key predisposition to injury when looking into psychological antecedents.
All injures are multifactorial, therefore we should have a multifactorial prevention and rehabilitation plan. According to the Model of Stress and Athletic Injury (Williams & Andersen, 1998), psychological interventions should be used to aid reduction in an athlete’s stress response. Reducing these stressors can decrease the risk of injury. The study used 12,000 participants using meta-analysis to gain a large quantity of valuable life information. One of the main findings, was that high levels of negative life-event stress and stress responsivity have strongest associations with injury risk. One potential factor for athletes is the prolonged exposure to stressors as this can have a neurological impact which in turn can impact on a reduction in clarity of thought processes or decision making processes and this is important as there is plenty of evidence to suggest that poor decision making increases injury risk (Ivarsson et al., 2017; McEwen, 2005).
With other stress responses, it is not uncommon to have poor sleep. Sleep quality reduction is related to reduced hormone release, and therefore, if the athletes’ sleep quality is reduced by sleep disturbance, is not sleeping through the night, repetitive waking up or are struggling to sleep at all, these behaviours can inhibit muscle recovery post exercise which
In Finan, Quartana & Smith’s (2015) study using three situational groups to determine sleep efficiency, uninterrupted sleep of 7Hr30 was averaged as 92% sleep efficiency, three consecutive nights of restrictive sleep of 4Hr-4Hr30 averaged as 98% sleep efficiency, three consecutive nights of disrupted sleep of 4Hr-4Hr30 averaged just 58% sleep efficiency creating increased negative mood. This goes against other research where shorter sleep durations are seen to be associated with higher levels of pre-training fatigue and increased sleep hours being most important in the lead up to competition (Sargent, 2014). Rosen et al., (2017) studies the impact of sleep on injury risk and found a 61% reduction in injury in those who slept for around 8 hours per night on weekdays, supporting both studies above. This data was collected via
Kellmann et al., (2018) explore the effectiveness of athletes’ recovery from a physical and psychological angle. They highlight the importance of managing the risk factors to aid a more functional and effective recovery for athletes. They include the need for psychological support, healthy sleep patterns, load monitoring and management. However, they do use a small sample and are sport specific in comparison to other research (Kellmann & Beckmann, 2017). Interventions for enhanced sleep can create a positive routine for athletes to ensure a minimum of 7 hours sleep,
In conclusion – we could all benefit from some much-improved sleep whether that be length or quality.